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《Journal of Peking University(Philosophy and Social Sciences)》 2020-03
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Opportunity Inequality: Concept, Mechanism and Implication

Jin Yongai;Xie Yu;Population and Development Studies Center, Renmin University of China;Center for Social Research, Peking University;  
This study proposes the concept of opportunity inequality, and analyzes the underlying mechanism of its formation and discusses its far-reaching social impact. Opportunity refers to the social context at a specific point of time in a specific location, that is characterized with being free from the control by any individual, unexpected, inexplicable, and even paroxysmal. Temporal and geographic variations are two basic dimensions to measure opportunity. Universality and heterogeneity are two distinct features regarding the impact of opportunity. On the one hand, all the individuals living at a specific time in a specific geographical area will be universally affected by their social contexts, while other individuals who don't live at this specific time in this specific area will not be affected. On the other hand, opportunity at a specific time in a specific area may interact with an individual's characteristics and make an impact which varies from person to person. Opportunity inequality is the social outcomes of individual differences that are caused by different social contexts. Social consequences of opportunity inequality include: altering the relationship between ascribed or achieved attributes and social outcomes, changing the existing social stratification, and generating long-term impacts on intergenerational mobility.
【Fund】: 中國人民大學科學研究基金(中央高校基本科研業務費專項資金)資助
【CateGory Index】: D663
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